Brain

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The human brain is the central organ of the nervous system, and with approximately 86 billion neurons, it is the most complex structure known in the universe.

Its primary functions include processing and integrating sensory information, generating motor commands, and controlling higher cognitive functions such as executive decision-making and attention.

The brain is also responsible for consciousness, emotions, and personality. The brain is composed of three major divisions: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.

The forebrain includes the cerebral cortex, which is responsible for higher cognitive functions; the thalamus, which processes and relays sensory information to the cortex; and the hypothalamus, which regulates autonomic functions such as hunger, thirst, and body temperature.

The midbrain includes the rectum, which processes visual and auditory information, and the tegmentum, which controls motor neurons.

The hindbrain consists of the cerebellum, which coordinates movement; the pons, which regulates breathing; and the medulla oblongata, which controls heart rate and blood pressure.

The brain is constantly active, even during sleep. It consumes large amounts of energy, and its metabolism is highly sensitive to changes in the body’s environment.

The brain is also susceptible to injury and disease and can be affected by psychological stressors.

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