The central nervous system (CNS) is the information-processing center of the body. It consists of the brain and spinal cord, which receive and interpret incoming sensory information, and coordinate the body's response. The CNS is protected by the skull and vertebral column, which form a barrier against injury.
The brain is the largest and most complex part of the CNS. It is responsible for all higher cognitive functions, such most complex part of the CNS.
It is responsible for processing and coordinating incoming sensory information, and for generating the body's response to that information. The brain is divided into three main regions: the cerebrum, the brainstem, and the cerebellum.
The cerebrum is the largest region of the brain and is responsible for most of the brain's higher cognitive functions. It is divided into two hemispheres, left and right, which are connected by a bridge of nerve tissue called the corpus callosum.
The cerebrum is further divided into four lobes: the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the temporal lobe, and the occipital lobe.
The brainstem is the region of the brain that connects the cerebrum to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. The brainstem is responsible for coordinating many of the body's vital functions, such as breathing and heart rate.
The cerebellum is the region of the brain responsible for balance and coordination. It is located at the back of the brain, beneath the cerebrum.
The central nervous system also includes the retina, a thin layer of tissue at the back of the eye that converts light into electrical impulses that are sent to the brain.
The optic nerve, a bundle of nerves that connect the retina to the brain, carries these impulses from the eye to the brain.
The central nervous system is vital for survival. It is responsible for all of the body's voluntary and involuntary actions. Damage to any part of the CNS can result in serious impairment or death.